Sunday, November 30, 2008

Blue Pencil no. 1

This is a slow blog. I have lots of material I hope to post but not enough time to properly prepare it. Thus, I expect my posts to be sporadic which will make Blue Pencil part of the nascent trend toward slow blogging.  

I chose the name Blue Pencil for the blog because my original intention in establishing it was to post lists of errors—factual, orthographical, typographical, etc.—I have been increasingly finding in the various books I read. Many publishers have abdicated their responsibility to properly edit and proofread the books they issue. Since they are unwilling to take on these essential tasks, Blue Pencil will do it for them—post facto. I have a backlog of material waiting to be posted, but will start the first Blue Pencil with a book I purchased during a recent trip to Lexington, Kentucky. It is a book that should never have been published in its present incarnation. 

Font. The Sourcebook
Nadine Monem, ed.
London: Black Dog Publishing, 2008

p. 19 “indicted” should be “indicated”

p. 19 “know” should be “known”

p. 20 “dependant“ should be “dependent”

p. 20 “Sinaticus” should be “Sinaiticus”

p. 21  “Sinaticus” should be “Sinaiticus”

p. 21 re: ROMAN uncials: “The fourth century Codex Sinaticus [sic], held by the British Library, contains a good example of this hand, written (for the most part) in four columns of majestically executed uncials spread across the broad pages. In the same way John Baskerville would use the hot rolled paper to good effect with the black outline of his letters generations later.”
[First, the Codex Sinaiticus is written in GREEK uncials rather than Roman ones. Second, what is the connection between uncials, whether Roman or Greek, and John Baskerville?]

p. 24 (twice) “miniscule” should be “minuscule”

p. 25 “miniscule” should be “minuscule”

p. 27, fig. 1 “The Marber grid, 1961. Romek was a freelance cover designer for Penguin from 1961 to 1969.”
[It should be explained that Marber and Romek are one person: Romek Marber.]

p. 35, fig. 13 “John Baskerville’s title page, for his 1776 Bible.”
[The comma is unnecessary. (Font. The Sourcebook consistently has trouble with the use of commas.) More importantly, the title page shown is from Baskerville’s folio Bible of 1763.]

p. 41, fig. 33Fastidious Assassin” should be “The Fastidious Assassin

p. 44, fig. 1 “…image of a scribe copying the Bible in a medieval scriptorium, 1893.”
[The image is not credited and its source is not provided so it is unclear whether or not the image is from the Middle Ages—in which case the date is wrong—or from the Arts & Crafts era.] 

p. 45 “Fabiano” should be “Fabriano”

pp. 46 and 47, figs. 3 and 4 “Pages from Gutenberg’s famed 42-line Bible, the first document to be printed with moveable type in the Western world.”
[Gutenberg printed various documents, including several editions of a Donatus, prior to printing the Bible.] 

p. 48 “Lyone” should be “Lyons”

p. 50, fig. 8 “Mechanik” should be “Mechanick”

p. 50, fig. 9 “L’Atelier Au VIIe Siècle” should be “L’Atelier au VIIe Siècle”

p. 50, fig. 10 “Luckcombe” should be “Luckombe”

p. 51 “The fount used in the 42-line Bible comprises some 270 different characters….”
[The past tense should be used. The number of characters in Gutenberg’s B-42 fount, as reconstructed by Gottfried Zedler and displayed in Johann Gutenberg: The Man and His Invention by Albert Kapr (Aldershot: Scolar Press, 1996), p. 160, is 299 (49 of which were added later).]

p. 60 (twice) “Jensen” should be “Jenson”

p. 61 “Jensen” should be “Jenson”

p. 62, fig. 4 “Eric Gill’s roman face, Perpetua, as cut by Monotype in 1929.”
[Perpetua was cut in 1925. It’s italic, Felicity, was cut in 1929.]

p. 62 “French German and Dutch” should be “French, German and Dutch”

p. 63 “Pierre Fournier le jeune” is more commonly known as either “Pierre-Simon Fournier le jeune” or “Pierre Simon Fournier le jeune”.

p. 64 “Timperely” should be “Timperley”

p. 64, fig. 8 “W de Worde, Thordynary of Crysten Men, 1506” should be “Wynken de Worde. The book title is spelled correctly.

p. 66 “Garald” should be “Garalde”

p. 66 “Romains de Roi” should be “Romain du Roi”

p. 66 “Phillipe Grandjean” should be “Philippe Grandjean”

p. 66 “re-appriased” should be “re-appraised”

p. 67, fig. 12 “Garald” should be “Garalde”

p. 67, fig. 12 “Example” should be “example” in keeping with figs. 11, 13 and 14

p. 67, fig. 12 “Robert Estienne’s Biblia Latina, 1953”.
[The date is wrong. Estienne published an edition of the Vulgate 1527–1528,  a folio Bible in 1532, an edition of Old Testament in Hebrew 1539–1541 (revised 1544–1546) and an edition of the New Testament in Greek (1551).]

p. 67, figs. 11–14 are inconsistent in their content. Fig. 11 (Humanist) shows original Centaur type; fig. 12 (Garald [sic]) shows a book printed by Robert Estienne; fig. 13 (Transitional rather than Reale as in the Vox system which is ostensibly used) shows a book printed by John Baskerville; and fig. 14 (Didone) shows an undated Monotype specimen of Bodoni.

p. 68, fig. 16 “Linear example: Monotype Frutiger Univers, 1964.” is misleading. The Vox system classification is called Lineal which translates as Linear, but the latter fails as an English alternative to the common sans serif.  Showing Monotype Univers (not “Monotype Frutiger Univers”) as an example of a sans serif is acceptable but misleading since Adrian Frutiger’s Univers was originally issued by Deberny & Peignot in 1957.

p. 68, fig. 17 “Glyphic example: detail of Perpetua Monotype, 1929.” should be “Glyphic example: detail of Perpetua, issued by Monotype in 1925.” But why is Perpetua chosen as an example of a glyphic type in the first place? p. 69 “Eric Gill’s Perpetua has been used both for inscriptional work on buildings and as a typeface in books….” is not a sufficient reason. Clarendon, Bodoni and Optima have also been used for inscriptional work on buildings and none of them would be considered glyphic.

p. 68, fig. 18 “Script example: Specimen from the early 1700s.”
[The accompanying image is of copperplate (roundhand) calligraphy not type. No specifics of the calligraphy are supplied.]

p. 69 “Slab-serif” in title but “slab serif” in text. 

p. 69 “Lineal” instead of “linear”; is this correct and the other usage incorrect? or vice versa?

p. 69 “…Helvetica, introduced by the Swiss type foundry, Haas, in 1957…” elides the history of Helvetica. Haas introduced Neue Haas Grotesk in 1957; Stempel adapted it—there are subtle differences between the two faces—in 1960.

pp. 69–70 the Script category is divided into Copperplate and Cursive. The latter is limited to “types which resemble a less formal style of writing”. This is an insufficient explication of script typefaces. No examples of either “copperplate” or “cursive” script types is provided.

p. 69 “Timperely” should be “Timperley”

p. 70 Blackletter is divided into subgroups using German names rather than English ones (which are provided in parentheses). Thus, Gotisch (Textura), Rundgotisch (Rotunda), Schwabacher and Fraktur. This is strange for an English language book and at odds with the use of French coinages from the Vox system of classification elsewhere. The descriptions of both Schwabacher and Fraktur are quotations from Ruari McLean who is, himself, quoting Alexander Nesbitt. 

p. 70 “Italiante” should be “Italianate”

p. 71, fig. 20 “Blackletter example: Catholic Litany and Ritual hours, written in old gothic characters on vellum, mid-fifteenth century.”
[The image shows textura calligraphy (probably French) rather than type. Why not use the terms gotisch or textura instead of old gothic?]

p. 75, fig. 1 “The Civilite type family designed by Robert Granjon in 1557.”
“Civilite” should be “Civilité”.
[The image is not of Granjon’s civilité from 1557, but of a glyph palette for GLC 1742 Civilité by painter Gilles Le Corre whose website does not cite the original source of his font.]

pp. 76–79 “Old Forms; New Ideas: Typographic Revival and the Uses of History” by Will Hill contains no images relevant to his discussion which touches upon William Morris’ Golden type, Centaur, Dante, Galliard, ITC Founder’s Caslon, HTF Historical Allsorts, Mrs. Eaves and Fetish 338. The only images are fig. 1 [see above] and fig. 2 “Robert Granjon designed the types for this Arabic book, circa 1590.” 

pp. 82 and 83, figs. 1–3 “Posters featuring the new display types, circa the early 1800s.”
[Fig. 1 contains the date 1861; and both figs. 2 and 3 include types that are later than the early 1800s.]

p. 84, fig. 4 “1817. Figgins Antiqua, first showing of the slab serifed antique, also known as ‘the Egyptian’, 1815.”
[Why is there a discrepancy between the dates?]

pp. 86–87, figs. 5–6 are noted (as is true of many images in the book). They are from the W.H. Bonnewell and Co., Caxton Letter Works, and Printing Material Manufactory, a business which is not explained in the text.

p. 97, fig. 6 the book shown (Tracts, Chiefly Relating to the Antiquities and Laws of England by William Blackstone) is not dated, though its title page says 1771. The typeface used in the title page is not identified (presumably it is Caslon) and the book is not mentioned in the text.

p. 99, figs. 10 and 11 “Baskerville specimen sheet and detail” should be “Monotype Baskerville specimen sheet and detail” since it accompanies an image of an undated page of Monotype Baskerville rather than anything printed by John Baskerville.

p. 101, figs. 13 and 14 are photographs of stored leads. There is no factual or othographical mistake here, only an editorial one. Why show a picture of stored leads in the first place, let alone two?

p. 102, fig. 15 “Title page from Pierre Simon Fournier’s, Modèles des caractères de l’imprimerie, 1742.”
[The author should be “Pierre Simon Fournier le jeune”.]

p. 102 “…in Parma there was to be a still greater exponent of modern face [than Firmin Didot]… Giambattista Bodoni….”
[Firmin Didot, Pierre Didot and their descendants had a far greater impact on 19th c. typography than did Bodoni.]

pp. 112-113, figs. 7 and 8 “Poster for Ed Fella’s lecture at the Minneapolis Walker Art Centre [sic], 2008.”
[The poster shown was for a lecture at the Boulder Museum of Contemporary Art in Boulder, Colorado and took place in 2003.]

p. 116 “clearly another revival of the nineteenth century grotesques” is a strange description of Franklin Gothic which was issued in 1902.

p. 118 “Timperely” should be “Timperley”

p. 119 “Timperely” should be “Timperley”

p. 119, fig. 4 “Page from the Times newspaper, 1932. The Times was the first newspaper to be printed using a steam press.”
[This accurately describes the image but the image fails to illuminate the historical point since the steam press was installed at the Times premises in 1814.]

p. 124 “typograher” should be “typographer”

p. 126 (twice) “Ottmar Merganthaler” should be “Ottmar Mergenthaler”

p. 126 “One of the first of these [types cut using the Benton punchcutting machine] was Cheltenham, designed by the architect Bertram Grosvernor Goodhue for the Cheltenham Press in New York.”
[The statement is incorrect since the Benton punchcutting machine was in use for a decade and a half before Cheltenham was designed. Also, “Grosvernor” should be “Grosvenor”.]

p. 126 “…Century typeface… now widely used in its revised form, Century Schoolbook, as cut by Monotype.”
[Century Schoolbook derives from Century but is much more than a “revised” version of that earlier face. It was originally issued by American Type Founders and not Monotype as is implied here.]

p. 127 “…and in 1907 the younger Benton designed Clearface and a Bodoni revival.”
[ATF Bodoni by Morris Fuller Benton was issued in 1910.]

p. 127 “If anything the younger Benton was a man before his time, indeed it is often Gill Sans or Univers that are considered groundbreakers in the modern typographic age, but Benton was busy mapping these new grounds some two decades in advance of either Gill or Frutiger.”
[Ignoring the tortured syntax, this sentence still makes no sense. Not all sans serifs are the same. There are significant differences among Franklin Gothic, News Gothic, Gill Sans and Univers. Benton, Gill and Frutiger all deserve accolades for their designs.]

p. 133 “Pineless” should be “Pineles”

pp. 129–135 “Great Women Typographers: Where are [sic] They? Teal Triggs asks Sibylle Hagmann” is a wasted opportunity. The question is never answered. The only names proffered—Cipe Pineles, Zuzana Licko, Carol Twombly, Paula Scher, Lorraine Wild, Ellen Lupton, Sheila de Bretteville and Beatrice Warde—are only mentioned in passing. And the only work shown is the odious Odile typeface by Hagmann. Some names that Triggs and Hagmann might want to consider: type designers Anna Simon, Elizabeth Colwell, Elisabeth Friedlander, Ilse Schule, Gudrun Zapf-von Hesse, Kris Holmes, Margaret Calvert, Freda Sack, Jaki Sakwa, Janice Prescott, Holly Goldsmith, Jane Patterson, Jean Evans, Joy Redick, Judith Sutcliffe, Brenda Walton, Laurie Szujewska, Jill Pichotta, Renèe LeWinter, Veronika Elsner, Veronika Burian, Ursula Suess; and graphic designers and book designers (what does Triggs mean by “typographers”?) Louise Fili, Carin Goldberg, Irma Boom, Jacqueline Casey, Muriel Cooper, Sylvia Steiner, Edna Beilenson, Helen Gentry, Jane Grabhorn, Sara Whitman Wyman, Betty Binns, Bea Feitler, Mary Viera, Tomoko Miho, Elaine Lustig Cohen, Sara Giovanitti, Valerie Pettis, April Greiman, Natalie Norris, Dorothy Abbe, Margaret Evans, Sara Eisenman, Lorraine Louie, Laurie Haycock Makela, Robynne Raye, Noreen Morioka, and on and on and on. The real question is which of these women can be considered “great”—however that term may be defined.

p. 138 “…William Morris then set out to create the first photographically-inspired types.”
[This statement confuses ends with means. Morris was not interested in making a typeface using photography but in using photography to make a typeface.]

p. 140, fig. 3 no date provided for illustration from A Dream of John Ball

p. 140, fig. 4 no date provided for drawings of Golden type

p. 141 “Nicholas Jensen” should be “Nicholas Jenson”

p. 142 “…Morris designed two further typefaces, the Troy type—specially cut for the Kelmscott Press edition of Froissart’s Chronicles….
[This statement is wrong. The type was first used in The Recuyell of the Historyes of Troye by Raoul Lefevre (1893).]

p. 143 “Using his influence as art director of Century Magazine [sic] and editor of The Chapbook [sic] (issued by ATF) Bradley managed to bring the philosophy of Arts and Crafts printing to commercial publishing for a time.”
[Will Bradley was never art director of The Century Magazine, though he was editor of The American Chap-Book published by ATF. However, the latter promoted Bradley’s interest in Colonial typography and illustration, not Arts and Crafts. He had explored the Arts and Crafts philosophy in The Chap-Book, an earlier publication of his published by Stone & Kimball 1894–1895.]

p. 143 “Updike had learned his craft at the Riverside Press in Cambridge, Massachusetts, succeeded by another great name in the field, Bruce Rogers. His best known creation is Centaur—another typeface based on a Jenson face….”
[This poor writing implies that Updike, not Rogers, created Centaur. The “craft” or “field” is not identified.]

p. 144 “Charles Ricketts cut the Vale type for his press of the same name….”
[Ricketts designed the type but the punches were cut by E.P. Prince.]

p. 144 “x height” should be “x-height”

p. 144 “It is generally thought that the first type specimen book to be issued in America was put out by the Philadelphia foundry of Binny & Ronaldson, in which can be found one of the best of the early transitional types, named the [sic] Oxford, with a peculiar hankering for the historical association of old time Britain.”
[Another poorly constructed sentence. Binny & Ronaldson’s types in their specimen of 1812 had no descriptive names. Their Pica No. 1 was renamed Oxford by Joseph W. Phinney in 1892 when it was revived by American Type Founders. It is doubtful he did this because of a “hankering” for “old time Britain”.]

p. 145, figs. 10 and 11 show “the first printed example of Monotype Centaur”.
[This is correct, but there is no mention here—or anywhere else in the book—that Centaur had been cast as a foundry type fifteen years before it was adapted for the Monotype machine.]

p. 146 “By 1916, it was just not the vocabulary of art that was dying. On the Western Front (and beyond) thousands were being slaughtered in the great conflict of the First World War.”
[This implies the war began in 1916. There is no mention of 1914.]

p. 147, fig. 14 “Bauhaus syllabus, 1922.”
[The accompanying image is from the Dessau Bauhaus and thus from 1925 or later.]

p. 148 “Rudolph Koch” should be “Rudolf Koch”

p. 148, fig. 15 “Bart Van Der Leck” should be “Bart van der Leck”

p. 148, fig. 16 “Herbert Bayer’s Universal typeface, a Modernist design that included only lower case [sic] letters.”
[Bayer’s work was never a typeface until the digital age. No date is provided.]

p. 149 “Branded Bolshevist sympathisers, they [Jan Tschichold and Paul Renner] both sought sanctuary in Switzerland. Allen Lane, then the proprietor for Penguin Books, invited Tschichold to re-design some of his books….”
[Renner never sought sanctuary in Switzerland. Tschichold did not work for Penguin soon after emigrating to Switzerland as these sentences imply. There was a gap of thirteen years between the two events.]

p. 150, fig. 18 image is not Zapfino but calligraphy by Hermann Zapf that led to the typeface.

p. 150 “Palatino reflects the influence of Edward Johnston’s calligraphic style in its free-flowing penned strokes, together with something of the great Renaissance types.”
[This awkward sentence reveals a lack of understanding of Johnstonian calligraphy as well as of Palatino. Zapf learned calligraphy by reading the German translation of Johnston’s Writing, Illuminating and Lettering, but his calligraphy has never resembled Johnston’s Foundational hand.]

pp. 150–151 “…Optima…its thicks and thins promoting a poise that is quite undefinable and yet firmly locates it as a part of the new wave of German sans serif faces. Not all achieved the recognition they might have desired. Erbar… never managed widespread distribution. By contrast Paul Renner was to achieve a degree of commercial success  with the creation of his Futura face. First issued in by [sic] the Bauer foundry in 1927….”
[Optima was issued in 1958, nearly three decades after Erbar, Futura et al. Furthermore, it has little in common with those geometrically-constructed sans serifs.]

p. 151 “…it was not until the Monotype Corporation asked him [Frederic Goudy] to design a face for Life magazine that he came to more universal recognition. Monotype issued the resultant font under the code 38-E, but it soon became better known as Goudy Old Style—the most enduring and most easily useable of all his faces….”
[This is a garbled history of Goudy Old Style. The facts: Goudy designed a typeface to be set by Monotype—not for Monotype–for Life magazine in 1908. The face was never used by the magazine, but was instead picked up by Gimbel Brothers, the New York department store. It became known as Goudy Gimbel. But some typographers referred to it as Goudy Old Style, which Mac McGrew says is incorrect, or as 38-E, its Monotype series number. In 1912 Goudy designed a face called Goudy Old Style for a private book project. The project fell through, but Goudy offered the face for sale through his Village Letter Foundery. The name was changed to Goudy Antique in 1915 when Goudy designed a face for ATF and they requested that it be named Goudy Old Style. (In 1927 Goudy Antique was renamed yet again as Goudy Lanston when it was adapted by Lanston Monotype for machine composition.) The Goudy Old Style that is famous today is the 1915 ATF version.]

p. 152, fig. 22 why show a Letraset version of Times Roman and not a metal one?

p. 153, fig. 24 no date provided for the Antique Olive type specimen

p. 153 “Adrian Frutiger designed Univers in 1952….”
[Although the genesis of Univers can be traced back to Frutiger’s student days at the Zurich Kunstgewerbeschule, the face was designed between 1954 and 1957 at Deberny & Peignot.]

p. 154 Eduard Hoffmann [no “o” in the first name] should be given co-credit with Max Miedinger for the design of Neue Haas Grotesk, the forerunner of Helvetica.

p. 154 “Hass” should be “Haas”

p. 154 “New Haas Grotesk” should be “Neue Haas Grotesk”

p. 154, fig. 25 again shows Monotype Univers (1964) rather than Deberny & Peignot Univers (1957)

p. 159 “…the Besley and Company foundry’s Clarendon type (1842) is widely acknowledged a one of the first bold typefaces…”
[The foundry was the Fann Street Foundry and the date was 1845.

p. 160 “…his fathers [sic] recently invented pantographic engraving machine (1886)…”
[Linn Boyd Benton’s punchcutting machine was invented in 1885.]

p. 160 “This [Jan van Krimpen’s Romulus project] was more ambitious than the type family of Lucian Bernhard, who released his types (Bernhard Gothic, Kingsley ATF, 1930) two years earlier. ”
[Bernhard never created a type family that sought to mix serif and sans serif designs. Many typefaces bore his name (eg. Bernhard Fashion, Bernhard Modern, etc.) as a marketing tool not as a sign that they were part of a larger family. Kingsley did not purchase ATF until 1986.]

Chapter 8—“The Digital Age” includes photolettering as well as Letraset but makes no mention of Lumitype, Photon, Photo-Lettering or Compugraphic. 

p. 169 “Designers such as Jan Tschichold and William Addison Dwiggins paved the way for younger designers such as those coming out of the Cranbrook Academy of Art in the late 1980s and 90s.”
[The direct connection between Tschichold, Dwiggins and Cranbrook is unclear and the statement is not elaborated upon.]

pp. 170–171, figs. 7–10 “Letraset Instant Lettering. Letraset International Ltd, 1947.”
[The date is wrong since the company was not founded until 1956. One of the images bears the date 1980 and another the date 1984. A third is of Sinaloa which was issued in 1974.]

p. 172, figs. 11–13 another set of Letraset images (dated 1981) with no explanation of their importance.

p. 173, fig. 14 Die Frau Ohne Namen poster for Phoebus-Palast by Jan Tschichold 1927 is shown next to the above Letraset catalogue images and two undated record album covers (p. 173, figs. 15 & 16). Only the Letraset catalogue is discussed in the text. What is the connection? What is the point?

pp. 172–173 the text focuses on the work of Robert Brownjohn, Saul Bass and Alex Steinweiss but the only image shown is Bass’ poster for Vertigo (p. 174, fig. 17; which happens to be entirely handlettered by Harold Adler). 

p. 174 “Though the first computer—the Manchester Mark I—was invented in 1949….”
[Although definitions of what constitutes a computer vary, it is generally believed that the ENIAC (1946) was the first.] 

p. 176, fig. 21 “Sinola” should be “Sinaloa”

p. 176, fig. 22 “The Xerox 9700 printer, 1977.” is the caption but the image shows an early Macintosh computer with an unmistakeable Apple logo.

p. 181, figs. 31 & 32 no date is given for these issues of The Face

p. 186 Experimental Jetset: “There are designers out there who can take a really unpopular typeface, and turn it into something truly interesting. An example that springs to mind is the cover of the first issue of art magazine Tourette’s, designed in 2003 by Goodwill (Will Holder), featuring hand-drawn renderings of the typeface Comic Sans.”
[Hand rendering a typeface derived from hand drawn lettering is not much of a stretch.]

pp. 201 and 203 First Things First (1964) and First Things First (2000). Why are these manifestos included in a book about type and typography?

p. 211 in section on “The Anatomy of Type” part of a Q is marked “bowl/counter”.
[But the bowl and counter of a letter are not identical. The bowl is a curved portion, usually closed, of a letter while a counter is the negative space bounded wholly or nearly so by strokes of a letter (such as the space within a bowl).]

p. 214 “Released by the H Berthold AG type foundry, Berlin, in 1896, the realist [?] typeface Akzidenz-Grotesk….” vs. p. 154 “Berthold’s Akzidenz Grotesk [no hyphen], originally dating from 1898….”
[The hyphen in Akzidenz-Grotesk is the original German spelling but today Akzidenz Grotesk is more commonly used. The date is usually given as 1898, though recent research has suggested it was based on Royal Grotesk issued by Ferdinand Theinhardt in 1880.]

p. 214 “It [Akzidenz Grotesk] influenced… Morris Fuller Benton’s Franklin Gothic (1903)….”
[This is highly unlikely. Also, Franklin Gothic was issued in 1902.]

p. 226 “Aldin” should be “Aldine”

p. 226 “Bembo is a venetian roman typeface, first cut by Francesco Griffo as Aldine Roman in 1495 and revised by Stanley Morison at Monotype in 1929.”
[The typeface that Griffo cut in 1495 did not have a name. It was neither called Bembo nor Aldine Roman. Bembo is the name given by Morison to Monotype’s version of the face and Aldine Roman is a description of it (as well as a golfball typeface designed for the IBM Selectric Composer). Bitstream uses Aldine 401 as the name for their copy of Bembo.]

p. 230 “The Italian Giambattista Bodoni created Bodoni in 1795.”
[Bodoni created hundreds of typefaces between 1770 and 1813, none of which ever bore the name Bodoni.]

p. 230 “Unlike previous typefaces, Bodoni has a high contrast between the thick and thin strokes, with flat abrupt serifs.” [Firmin Didot designed faces before Bodoni did that had these features. Furthermore, many of Bodoni’s faces had slightly bracketed serifs.]

p. 231 Poster Bodoni is incorrectly included in the Bodoni family. It was designed in 1929 by C.H. Griffith for Mergenthaler Linotype as a copy of Ultra Bodoni by Morris Fuller Benton (ATF, 1928) which was inspired more by 19th c. Fat Faces than by the work of Giambattista Bodoni.

p. 234 “In 1879 William Page cut French Clarendon (also known as Circus Letter), a thin condensed version [of Clarendon] with exaggerated serifs famously used on reward posters of the period.”
[According to Rob Roy Kelly Page cut his first Clarendon in 1865. More importantly, French Clarendons are not simply condensed versions of Clarendons with exaggerated serifs. They have inverted weight distribution.]

p. 234 “Clarendon witnessed a revival in America during the 1920s as it proved to be robust under the new strains of high-speed newspaper printing.”
[This is another garbled sentence. Clarendons were not revived in the 20th c. until the 1950s when Hermann Eidenbenz designed Haas Clarendon (1951) and Freeman Craw designed Craw Clarendon (1955) for ATF. In the 1920s there was a shift in newspaper typeface designs from modern style to slab serif style led by C.H. Griffith of Mergenthaler Linotype. He designed Ionic in 1922 and followed it up with Excelsior (1931), Paragon (1935), Opticon (1935) and Corona (1941). These faces came to be known collectively as The Legibility Group.]

p. 236 “Frank Home School” should be “Frank Holme School”

p. 236 “The stroke of Cooper Black is calligraphic and the serifs are enlarged and curved, evidencing an Art Deco influence.” There is no Art Deco influence. Cooper Black (1922) was the darkest member of the Cooper family begun in 1918. It closely mimics lettering that Oswald Cooper had been doing before World War I. Similarly robust lettering was done by others—such as Fred G. Cooper, Fred Goudy, Lucian Bernhard, Peter Behrens and Louis Oppenheim—at the time.]

p. 238 “…Courier…inspiring typefaces such as… Erik van Blokland’s Trixie….”
[FF Trixie was inspired by the generation of typewriters that used cloth ribbons and that preceded IBM’s golfball machines. It was not influenced at all by Courier.]

p. 242 “It was not until the 1960s that DIN became popular for its application on print material—despite its use by the Bauhaus during the 1930s—when it was licensed in Letraset transfer.”
[This is an awkward sentence. There is no evidence that the Bauhaus used DIN during its final years.]

p. 244 “The Nazi regime encouraged the use of Fette Fraktur font until January 1941 when Martin Bormann, director of the Party Chancellery commanded the end of the use of blackletter faces because of suspected Jewish contribution to the development of this type.”
[This sentence confuses fraktur as a category of type (the German equivalent of blackletter) with the Fette Fraktur font. Some elements within the Nazi party (though not all) encouraged the use of blackletter types until the issuance of the Bormann decree in 1941, but there is no documentary or visual evidence supporting a claim that they specifically encouraged Fette Fraktur.]

p. 246 “Franklin Gothic was the first typeface designed by Morris Fuller Benton as chief type designer at the newly formed American Type Founders Company. The typeface… was greatly influenced by humanist woodcut gothic faces, and geometric sans serif type from Germany including Akzidenz-Grotesk, 1898, and Basic Commercial, 1900.”
[Franklin Gothic was issued a decade after the formation of American Type Founders. It was not Benton’s first typeface for the company. Akzidenz Grotesk is not a “geometric sans serif type”. Furthermore, the sample of the face on pp. 246–247 is ITC Franklin Gothic (though not identified as such), not the original Franklin Gothic.]

p. 252 “Garamond’s associate Jannon….”
[Jean Jannon was born nearly twenty years after Claude Garamond died and thus the two men could not have been associates.]

p. 254 “Gill Sans was the first typeface designed by Eric Gill for Monotype.”
[No. It was preceded by Perpetua in 1925.]

p. 254 “vestigal” should be “vestigial”

p. 256 “Between the 1930s and 60s and before the era of the graphic designer, many businesses used engineers or draftsmen to design their signs.”
[No. Businesses used signpainters and commercial artists, the forerunners of today’s graphic artists.]

p. 258 “Originally called Neue Haas Grotesk, it [Helvetica] was commissioned as a rival to the popular Akzidenz-Grotesk and was based upon Schelter Grotesk, a sans serif by Schelter and Giesecke.”
[Eduard Hoffmann’s notebook for Neue Haas Grotesk, begun 16 November 1956, specifically mentions Akzidenz-Grotesk on many pages and other grots, such as Normal Grotesk and Schelter Grotesk, only occasionally.]

p. 262 “Gill was inspired [to design Joanna] by the work of French renaissance typecutter Robert Granjon….”
[This surprising assertion is not supported.]

pp. 264–265 “Johnston Railway Type was issued on all London Transport ephemera from 1916 onwards, with three new weights added in 1979.”
[The identities of the designers of the 1979 weights are not given and the showings of “Johnston” are not detailed. It is unclear whether it is the 1916 design, the 1979 design, ITC Johnston or P-22 Johnston.]

p. 268–269 “Lucida has an extended type family…”
[Shown are Lucida Sans Demibold Roman, Lucida Blackletter, Lucida Bright, Lucida Handwriting, Lucida Calligraphy, Lucida Sans Typewriter, and Lucida Fax. The blackletter, handwriting and calligraphy fonts are not really part of the Lucida family. They only share the name for branding purposes.]

p. 270 “Designed in 1984 by Zuzana Licko at the Emigre foundry, Matrix….”
[Matrix was designed in 1985.]

p. 272 “In 1989, it [the typeface designed for the German post office] was resurrected by Just van Rossum, giving the typeface three digitised styles.”
[Poor syntax. It is probably more accurate to say that Erik Spiekermann resurrected the post office typeface and that van Rossum carried out the digitizing of extra weights for what became Meta.]

p. 272 “Meta has a humanist appearance—as seen here on [in?] the number 8 where the stroke follows the pattern of [the] brush.”
[This is a flimsy basis on which to label Meta a humanist sans serif.]

p. 282 “miniscule” should be “minuscule”

p. 292 “Formed in 1971, ITC launched ITC Souvenir as one of its initial typeface families.”
ITC was founded in 1970.]

pp. 294–295 “The [ITC] Stone type family, consisting of serif, sans, humanist and informal styles….”
[There is no humanist style to the ITC Stone family. The font showing only includes ITC Stone Sans despite the claim on the back of the book that “Each typeface entry is illustrated with an extensive library….” (Other typefaces are also skimped on.) ITC Stone is a Humanist Sans however.]

p. 296 “In 1969, the Linotype type foundry released Syntax….”
[Syntax was originally released by D. Stempel AG in 1968.]

pp. 298–299 “Thesis is a large typeface family…. The font family includes a sans-serif [sic] typeface, a serif typeface, a monospace typeface and a mixed typeface.”
[Only TheSans (but not identified as such) and Thesis Mono are shown.]

p. 304 “Alternative derivative typefaces [from the Trajan inscription] include Frederic Goudy’s Goudy Trajan, and Warren Chappell’s Trajanus.”
[Goudy called his face Trajan Title. Meanwhile, Chappell’s design has little connection to the Trajan Column other than its name. The sentence has extraneous commas.]

p. 308 “Univers is a neo-grotesque sans serif, designed by Adrian Frutiger in 1956 and released by the type foundry Deberny et [sic] Peignot in 1957.”
[The design of Univers was begun before 1956.]

pp. 312-313 “Zapfino is a complex font…. OpenType allows the typographer to select from many alternative characters and ligatures….”
[The Zapfino showing consists solely of the “regular” version with no alternates or ligatures.]

p. 314 “scibal” should be “scribal”

p. 314 (twice) “Typofiles” should be “Typophiles”

p. 314 “Rurai McLean” should be “Ruari McLean”

p. 315  “Graphic Design: A New History” should be “Graphic Design: A New History

p. 315  ““Modern Typography: An Essay in Critical History”” should be “Modern Typography: An Essay in Critical History

p. 315 “Visible Language” should be “Visible Language”

p. 315 “Émigré” should be “Emigre” since it refers to the magazine and foundry

p. 315  the text explaining the First Things First manifesto of 1964 is identical to that explaining the First Things First manifesto of 2000. The latter is correct.

p. 316 “Blaise Agüera Y Arcas” should be “Blaise Agüera y Arcas” and should be indexed under A instead of B

p. 316 “Civilite” should be “Civilité”

p. 316 “Cope And Sherwin Machines” should be “Cope and Sherwin Machines; and the page reference should not be in bold type

p. 317 “Delittle Of York” should be “Delittle of York”

p. 317 “Democratisation Of Typography” should be “Democratisation of Typography”

p. 317 “Din” should be “DIN”

p. 317 there are separate entries for “Fournier le jeune, Pierre” and “Fournier, Pierre Simon”

p. 317 “Fry And Pine Type Foundry” should be “Fry and Pine Type Foundry”

p. 317 there are separate entries for “Goudy” [the man, not the typeface] and “Goudy, Frederic”

p. 317 “Great Library Of Pergamum” should be “Great Library of Pergamum”

p. 317 “Griffiths, Chauncey H.” should be “Griffith, Chauncey H.”

p. 317 “H. Schupp Of Dresden” should be “H. Schupp of Dresden”

p. 317 “Hoefler And Frere-Jones” should be “Hoefler and Frere-Jones”

p. 318 “Html” should be “HTML”

p. 318 “ITC Stone” should be indexed under S not I

p. 318 there are separate entries for “Jensen” [sic], “Jenson” and “Jenson, Nicholas”

p. 318 there are separate entries for “Johnston” [the man, not the typeface] and “Johnston, Edward”

p. 318 “King Charlemagne” should be indexed under C not K

p. 318 “Koch, Rudolph” should be “Koch, Rudolf”

p. 318 “Levrant De Bretteville, Sheila” should be “Levrant de Bretteville, Sheila”

p. 318 “Life” should be “Life

p. 318  “Lner” should be “LNER”

p. 318  “Lowe De Vinne, Theodore” should be “De Vinne, Theodore Low” and should be listed under D not L

p. 318 “Ludwig And Mayer” should be “Ludwig and Mayer”

p. 318Manuale Tipogrifico” should be “Manuale Tipografico

p. 318 “Marinetti” should be “Marinetti, FT” or “Marinetti, Filippo Tomasso”

p. 318 “Mclean, R” should be “McLean, R” or, better yet, “McLean, Ruari”

p. 318 “Miller, J. Abbott” should be “Miller, J Abbott” (in keeping with the British punctuation style of the book)

p. 318 there are separate entries for “OurType” and “OurType Arnhem”

p. 318 “Pliny’s Historia Nauralis” should be “Pliny’s Historia Naturalis

p. 319 the entry “Roman??” has no page reference and is unclear

p. 319 “Romains Du Roi” should be “Romain du Roi”

p. 319 “Royal Mint At Tours” should be “Royal Mint at Tours”

p. 319 there are separate entries for “Schoeffer” and “Schoeffer, Peter”

p. 319 “Schwahacher” should be “Schwabacher”

p. 319 “SenEfelder, Alois” should be “Senefelder, Alois”

p. 319 “Stannard, WiLliam” should be “Stannard, William”

p. 319 “Stempel Ag” should be “Stempel AG” or “D. Stempel AG”

p. 319Story of the Glittering Plain” should be “The Story of the Glittering Plain

p. 319 “Swenheym And Pannartz” should be “Swenheym and Pannartz”

p. 319 “Throne, Robert” should be “Thorne, Robert”

p. 319 “Tipografia in Libertà And Parole in Libertà” should be “Tipografia in Libertà and Parole in Libertà”

p. 319 “Tourette’s” should be “Tourette’s

p. 319 “United States Declaration Of Independence” should be “United States Declaration of Independence”

p. 319 there are separate entries for “Updike” and “Updike, DB”
p. 319 “Vanderlans, Rudy” should be “VanderLans, Rudy”

p. 319 “Von Kessler, Henry Graf” should be “von Kessler, Henry Graf” and indexed under K, not V.

p. 319 “Venetian miniscule” should be “Venetian minuscule”

p. 319 “Virgil’s Bucolica, Geogica, Et Aeneis” should be “Virgil’s Bucolica, Georgica et Aeneis” 

p. 319 “Van De Velde, Henry” should be “Van de Velde, Henry”

p. 319 “Weimar Arts And Crafts School and the Academy Of Art” should be divided into two separate entries: “Weimar Arts and Crafts School” and “The Weimar Academy of Art”

p. 319 “Will Holder” should be “Holder, Will” and indexed under H not W

p. 319 “Wisdom Of Nabu” should be “Wisdom of Nabu”

p. 319 “Xerox Parc” should be “Xerox PARC”

p. 319 “Young And Delcambre” should be “Young and Delcambre”

p. 320
“Akzidenz Grotesque” should be either “Akzidenz-Grotesk” or “Akzidenz Grotesk”

p. 320 “Enid Nomen” should be “Enid Monem” (I think, since the editor of Font. The Sourcebook is Nadine Monem.)

p. 320 “And finally, a big thank you to Emily Chicken for designing what may well be the most beautiful book I have ever had the pleasure to work on.”
[Emily Chicken is indeed the name of the book’s designer, but by this point the reader could easily be forgiven for thinking that it was the final typographic joke of Font. The Sourcebook. “Emily Chicken” is correct as the designer of the book. She graduated from Leeds Metropolitan University in 2004. Clearly, she did not learn how to do an index or design a book.

The mistakes in Font. The Sourcebook are especially galling because it is a book about type and typography. 

If readers find similar mistakes in Blue Pencil feel free to point them out. I cross my fingers that there won’t be any, but I know that some mistakes are inevitable. 

Thursday, November 20, 2008

“The (Mostly) True Story of Helvetica and the New York City Subway”

Read the complex story of how and when Helvetica entered the New York City subway system at AIGA Voice. The documentation for the article will eventually be posted here along with additional photographs of subway signage. In the meantime, to complete my research I am still looking for more photographs of the subway system taken between 1966 and 1980 showing signs, especially signs that have black lettering on a white background. (The sign pictured here is NOT from the late 1960s but is a temporary one in the Chambers Street station taken in October 2008.) If anyone has any such photographs please let me know.